A root tear of the medial meniscus is a very unique tear. Repairing a root tear of the medial meniscus requires a very different approach than a traditional meniscal repair. Root tears which occur after trauma will require a surgical root repair. This is in contrast to the more common degenerative root tear which will not typically require a repair. This article will discuss what root tears of the meniscus are and the thought process behind how we recommend treating them.
The meniscus is a c-shaped cartilage cushion in the knee joint. It functions as a shock absorber and a stabilizer. Tears of the meniscus are very common. Root tears are not very common. It is very important that your doctor be well versed in root tears since they behave much differently than a typical meniscus tear.
What is the “Root” of the Meniscus?
The meniscus is attached or anchored to the tibia by two “roots”. There is a root attachment in the front of the meniscus and a root attachment in the back (posterior) of the meniscus. In most injuries it is the posterior root attachment that is torn. Problems arise with root tears because if the root of the meniscus is torn, then the entire meniscus becomes non-functional. In other words, the meniscus needs to be well anchored to the tibia in order to function as a shock absorber.
How Did I Tear The Root of the Meniscus?
Many meniscus root tears occur as a result of trauma. Some root tears occur at the same time you tore your ACL. Other common causes of root tears might be a fall, slip on ice or related to a sports injury. As we age it is easier to tear the root of the meniscus, especially the medial meniscus root. Therefore you may tear the root by simply kneeling or squatting down. The average age of patients with root tears in my practice is between 25 and 55. The younger patients tend to have lateral root tears in association with ACL tears. The older patients tend to have medial root tears in association with early arthritic changes. Root tears which occur in association or with coexisting osteoarthritis are the most common form of root tear seen by orthopedic surgeons. Most of you will note that you simply knelt down, bent your knee or twisted, felt a pop and then noted increasingly more severe pain in the knee.
How Do You Fix A Root Tear?
In order to fix the root of the meniscus we need to pull the root against the tibia in the same place where it was before your injury. The procedure is mostly arthroscopic. It is a technically challenging procedure so please be sure that your physician has performed many of these. After we put a suture around the root of the meniscus, we drill a hole from the front of you tibia into the root area. We then bring the sutures out through the hole and tie them over the front of the tibia. Therefore we are pulling the root down into the tibia and the suture will hold it in place until it heals. In the picture above you can see how the suture is through the root of the meniscus, and the meniscus is being pulled down into a small hole I created to encourage healing.
Do All Root Repairs Need Surgery?
The body of evidence about the treatment of root tears of the meniscus is growing. This is becoming a hotly debated area of interest right now.
There is generalized agreement that most medial root tears which occur in the setting of moderate or severe osteoarthritis should not be fixed. In these cases, the meniscus is usually degenerative or wearing out. Studies have shown that if these tears are fixed, they will commonly tear again in a very short time frame. Root tears which occur in an arthritic knee should be treated with rest, some may require a walker or crutches for limited weight bearing. Many will benefit from use of a compression sleeve, and after a month, a course of physical therapy. A good example of a compression sleeve can found at the link below.
Medial root tears with minimal osteoarthritis might be worth fixing. The benefit of fixing them is that a successful repair might slow the progression of osteoarthritis. But the key issue here is that the severity of the arthritis in the knee must be minimal.
If you have a traumatic root tear due to a severe injury, there is agreement amongst sports surgeons and orthopedic surgeons that these tears should be repaired. There are studies which show that a high percentage of repairs are successful, and there are studies which show that the success rate might be far lower. The success rate will be determined by many factors. First is whether or not you have anything else wrong with your joint… such as osteoarthritis. Other reasons for failure include lack of biological healing, resuming activities too quickly leading to a new tear, and over-tightening the repair which could lead to a new tear somewhere else.
If you have a root tear as a result of a traumatic injury, be sure you see someone with experience repairing root tears. Some tears might be considered for repair, others may not. IF you have osteoarthritis, and it is moderately severe, then have surgery for your root tear might not be advisable.
Hopefully this has improved your understanding of root tears of the medial meniscus. Here is a review about root tears that might be worth reviewing.